Eco-city

An eco-city reduces its ecological footprint to fit within the boundaries of one planet. In an eco-city, people and organisations adapt to a changing climate and gladly act to build a sustainable future.

As an eco-city, Melbourne has a healthy environment with a high quality of life and a growing economy. We will develop and use technology to preserve resources to ensure the city is sustainable now and in the future. Melbourne will achieve zero net emissions, manage climate change risks and lead the way in sustainable water management.

An eco-city is compact, with a high density of housing, business and cultural uses that sustain an effective public transport system, and walking and cycling above car use. With excellent air quality and generous public open space and landscaping, biodiversity is supported and people enjoy the benefits of health and happiness. City infrastructure and buildings generate and use renewable energy and feed into the metropolitan electricity grid. Food is grown locally and creatively, using horizontal and vertical spaces on buildings and in private and public gardens.

In its journey to become an eco-city, the municipality achieves zero net emissions, manages climate change risks, leads the way in sustainable water and resource management, and increases its population density. To guide this, the municipality employs a 'city as an ecosystem' approach to develop new models of living that allow us to prosper within the Earth's ecological limits.

As a result, people in Melbourne are motivated to minimise their energy and water consumption and to support mandatory measures such as water and carbon restrictions. The City of Melbourne also advocates the importance of the metropolitan, regional and global ecosystem, partnering and sharing knowledge about green technologies and sustainable urban management practices with other cities. It supports and promotes innovative industries and businesses that have positive benefits for our environment.

Goals to be an eco-city:

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1. Zero net emissions city

To become an eco-city the municipality will need to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases to zero. We will do this by massively reducing our greenhouse gas emissions and then offsetting those that remain. The interim target for this ambitious goal is to reduce the total emissions across the municipality by 59 per cent per worker and 35 per cent per resident by 2020 (from 2006 levels).

The municipality, along with all developed cities and countries across the world, must make big reductions in greenhouse gas emissions - and fast. Melbourne can be a leader in the global task of averting catastrophic manmade climate change. But on average Australians are one of the worlds highest per capita greenhouse gas emitters.

In 2000 Australian ranked as the 9th highest emitter out of 185 countries and was the highest emitters of any developed countries.1 Victoria's Commissioner for Environmental Sustainability has said "...our energy legacy has positioned Victoria as one of the highest per capita greenhouse polluting states in one of the highest per capita greenhouse polluting countries in the world". 2

Community involvement

Effective action to achieve a zero-carbon municipality requires widespread community participation. A long-term and focused communication program to motivate people will cater to our diverse community, and will cover all opportunities for meaningful contributions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Communications will also focus on increasing awareness that actions in Melbourne affect not just the city, but also the state, nation and the world.3

The City of Melbourne has reviewed and updated its Zero Net Emissions by 2020 - Update 2008 . The municipality and the Victorian and Federal Governments, as well as community and professional organisations, have initiated programs and projects to improve the environmental sustainability of the municipality.4

Better data is needed on the performance of inner and central city residences. From these and other initiatives we can learn what does and doesn't work, who participates and who watches, and what some of the keys to effective and lasting change are. This will help us energise the community to take the direct actions necessary if we are to become an eco-city.

Building and infrastructure

All new buildings in the municipality must be energy efficient. New residential and commercial buildings will aim to achieve a six-star or greater NABERS energy rating. An award could be instituted as celebration and incentive for this. Reducing the embodied energy contained in buildings and infrastructure is also important. The manufacture of materials such as concrete and steel is extremely resource-hungry. Careful selection of materials is necessary to minimise this problem.

New building and infrastructure are more easily rendered energy efficient. But these only make up a small proportion of the whole stock of buildings and can therefore only make a limited contribution to municipality becoming a Zero-carbon city in the short time available.

To achieve this we will retrofit our existing buildings with more energy efficient heating, cooling, lighting, equipment and appliances through initiatives such as the Clinton Climate Initiative .

Retrofitting will yield significant savings through reduced energy costs, which can be used to cover retrofitting costs. Tailored programs, including appropriate data, will be developed for retrofitting of residential and commercial buildings and could be supported by pro-active planning scheme provisions. Innovative thinking will be important. For example, roof tops could become more valuable for wind or solar energy generation and/or food production and new options for aggregating and renting these spaces put into place.

Urban transport

Changes to transport use patterns will reduce transport-related greenhouse gas emission, see City of Melbourne Greenhouse Footprint for Transport Draft Report May 2008 . Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by changing from unsustainable modes such as cars to public transport5, bicycles and walking and also just travelling less by eliminating unnecessary trips.

Low emissions local power generation

Melbourne is heavily dependent on brown coal as an energy source. This energy-source generates high levels of greenhouse gas emissions6. Reducing these emission by pumping the Co2 underground (geo-sequestration) is being researched but full scale commercial application may be decades away. We need to adopt energy sources with low and even no greenhouse gas emissions more immediately.

Redesigning and re-equipping whole precincts and neighbourhoods to reduce net energy demands and to generate energy on-site is an emerging focus of eco-cities across the world. Partnership with key stakeholders can achieve this. The proposed Green Transformers program in the City of Sydney is one example.

Local food

In Australia food-related greenhouse gas emissions exceed transport emissions, and may prove to be more significant than greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. Changes to food production, processing and consumption patterns will significantly reduce these greenhouse gas emissions.

This very challenging goal for the municipality can only be achieved through partnerships, incentives, proactive regulation such as through the planning scheme, and the cumulative effect of many smaller initiatives.

Goals

Goals Indicators Outcomes

Residents reduce emissions

Residents reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 35 per cent per capita by 2020 (from 2006 levels).

CO2 Emissions per resident per year.

Target: 5.1t

Current: 7.8t

reported every two years

Existing houses (12,000), apartments and flats (24,000) have been retrofitted for better energy and water efficiency. Housing is comfortable and is affordable to heat and cool.

Residents are informed and empowered and make low-carbon choices.

Workers reduce emissions

Workers reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 59 per cent per capita by 2020 (from 2006 levels).


CO2 emissions per worker per year.

Target: 4.1t

Current: 9.9t

reported every two years

approximately 1200 Buildings ( 70 percent of the existing commercial building stock) in the city of Melbourne have been retrofitted to cut greenhouse gas emissions through programs such as the Clinton Climate Initiative .

New commercial and institutional buildings have at least as much greenery within their plot as if they were an empty, native site.

Transport reduces emissions

Reduce transport related greenhouse gas emissions for trips within, to, and from the municipality.

Reduction in emissions for trips within and to and from the municipality per passenger kilometre.

Target: Indicator to be developed

Current: baseline to be developed.

reported every two years

Residents, workers and visitors utilise alternative modes of transport (cycling, walking and public transport) to meet their transport needs.

Report municipal greenhouse gas emissions annually

*Methodology to be determined

Greenhouse gas emissions for the municipality.

Target: interim targets to be determined

Current : 6.43 million tonnes per year.

Confidence of residents and workers that their contribution is assisting the municipality to meet its goal.

Indicators

The city of Melbourne (place)
  • Per capita worker greenhouse gas emissions
  • Per capita resident greenhouse gas emissions
  • Transport greenhouse gas emissions per passenger kilometre
  • Total greenhouse emissions for the city of Melbourne.

Global city ranking

See Also

2. The city as a catchment

Through the adoption of a 'city as a catchment7' philosophy, the municipality will conserve water and improve the health of its waterways. By 2020, resident mains water use will be reduced by 40 per cent and worker mains water use will be reduced by 50 per cent (from 2000 levels). Pollution entering our waterway will be reduced by 20 per cent by 2020.

A city as a catchment philosophy helps to determine the flow and amount of water moving through the municipality and the pollutants that are carried with these flows. It ensures greater emphasis is given to rainwater and stormwater harvesting, which not only saves mains water and reduces pollutants entering our water bodies, it also detains stormwater, allowing us to adapt for forecasts of bigger, more frequent storms, a result of climate change.

Through the identification and linking of water source (a road, or a building with a large roof) and water sinks (a large water-using business or a park), this philosophy allows for water to be effectively managed locally and to reduce both water demand and polluted run-off into areas beyond the local catchment.

The movement of water through the municipality today is set out below. A system based on a city as a catchment philosophy would include less untreated stormwater run-off, which will be treated and reused where possible.

Water_Budget,_baseline_2000.jpg

Water use reduction

As part of the city as a catchment philosophy, saving water continues to be the first step to sustainable water management. Water savings can be achieved by reducing water pressure to prevent wastage, installing efficient fixtures and appliances, reconfiguring cooling towers and fire sprinkler testing.

Some water savings will be consumed by the municipality's growing residential and worker population, but an overall water saving of 22 per cent will be retained. The City of Melbourne has pledged this absolute water saving for upstream environmental flows.

Stormwater pollution reduction

Land uses responsible for the greatest amount of pollution in the municipality include:

  • roads, generating total suspended solids (grit, car and tyre residue and so on), increasing turbidity of water and decreasing light penetration. In turn, this inhibits photosynthesis by aquatic organisms
  • roofs, generating nitrogen (airborne pollutants) causing excessive growth of undesirable algae, aquatic weeds and cyanobacterium, leading to shortages of dissolved oxygen

The City of Melbourne has already committed to a range of water-cycle targets directed at water conservation, stormwater quality, wastewater minimisation and groundwater protection.

By 2020, the municipality will have reviewed the use of alternate water sources at all sites, and has all drains passing through a treatment system.

Reconfiguration of the municipality's water cycle infrastructure to aid harvesting, treatment, and climate adaptation needs significant investment. A review of the City of Melbourne's infrastructure funding policies, including development contribution plans and value capture strategies will be considered in the future.

Goals Indicators Outcomes

Residents' water consumption reduced

Reduce residents' mains water consumption by 40 per cent by 2020 (from 1999/2000 levels).

Residents use of drinking water is reduced by 40 per cent from 2000 levels.

Target: 178 litres per person per day

Current: 179 litres per person per day (296 litres per person per day in 2000)

Most residences now have water efficient fittings and appliances and gardens that use little water. Residential apartment blocks are water efficient and some use alternative water sources. Householders save water and money by using it carefully.

Workers' water consumption reduced

Reduce workers' mains water consumption by 50 per cent by 2020 (from 1999/2000 levels).

Worker's use of drinking water is reduced by 50 per cent from 2000 levels.

Target: 91 litres per worker per day.

Current: 95 litres per person per day (181 litres per worker per day in 2000)

Most commercial, industrial and institutional buildings have water efficient fixtures and appliances,gardens that use little water,the capacity to harvest rainwater and stormwater and where possible, recycle water for fit-for-purpose use. Building owners save water and money by using it carefully.

Council's water consumption reduced

Reduce Council's mains water consumption by 40 per cent by 2020 (from 1999-2000) and sources 30 per cent of its water needs from alternative sources by 2020 (from 1999-2000). The City is a large user of water in public parks and places.

Mains water use by City of Melbourne in litres/year/ratepayer.

Target: To be determined

Current: To be determined.

The City of Melbourne has reduced its building water use through water efficient fittings and appliances, building rainwater harvesting and water recycling. And in parks it has reduced water use to zero potable water use in 2020 by efficient irrigation techniques,water wise design, planting and management, use of synthetic turf surfaces and harvesting stormwater and rainwater and some water recycling. the city government and industry have cooperated to irrigate with captured water and developed options such as "sewer mining".

Reporting on water consumption

Annual municipal mains water consumption reporting

Total mains water use.

Confidence of residents and workers that their contribution is assisting the municipality to meet its goal.

Reduce pollution entering waterways

Reduce pollution entering our waterway by 20 per cent reduction in total suspended solids; 20 per cent reduction in total phosphorus; 35 per cent reduction in total nitrogen by 2020 (from 2005).

Volume of total suspended solids, total phosphorus and total nitrogen/year/ratepayer.

Target: Reductions of three per cent total suspended solids, four per cent total phosphorus and four per cent total nitrogen in 2007 (from 2005).

C urrent: To be determined.

The municipality's stormwater is clean when it is discharged into the creeks, rivers and the bay and has improved the aquatic ecology, recreation and tourism. Groundwater infiltrates into water table and aquifer where possible and is managed to ensure no less quantity or quality of water occurs.All planning and building proposals demonstrate no net negative effect on receiving waters in terms of quality and quantity and all new infrastructure in the municipality has applied water sensitive urban design techniques.

Indicators

The City of Melbourne (place)

  • Percentage of residents who participate in household water conservation (Source: Community Indicators Victoria Survey)
  • Change in the municipality's consumption of drinking water
  • Change in municipality's generation of stormwater pollutants

The City of Melbourne (organisation)

  • Kilolitres (kl) of rainwater storage capacity .

3. Resource efficient

An eco-city uses only what it needs and produces no waste, creating many environmental and economic benefits that contribute to sustainability.

While densely populated cities have intrinsic efficiencies of scale we are only just beginning to understand them as an ecosystem. They currently require an enormous amount of resources to sustain their inhabitants. London for example needs a staggering 125 times its own area to supply the resources to sustain itself 8 .

Large cities are central to the flow of goods and services, people, and ideas that have enabled global integration and prosperity for many. These flows can also create direct and indirect environmental impacts. We need to understand, measure and monitor these impacts and design new ways to make them more efficient and reduce their ecological footprint to a sustainable level.

Melbourne's high consumption of energy, water, food, materials and natural resources is not sustainable - economically or environmentally. Increased consumption of animal-based, processed and imported foods as well as out-of-season produce has environmental implications. Inefficient appliances, entertainment units, airconditioners and other electrical devices unnecessarily increase the amount of energy and resources used.

Through partnerships with various private and public groups and organisations, Melbourne will become a resource and material-efficient city. To achieve this goal, we will measure and report on our ecological footprint, and develop new ways of living that are less resource-intensive. We will also promote use of backyard and rooftop vegetable gardens, and encourage greater waste reduction, re-use and recycling. The incorporation of waste-management facilities that make it easier for people to reduce waste sent to landfill is also essential.

Goals Indicators Outcomes

Reduce household waste in the city.

Tonnes of residential waste generated/year/worker

Target: Indicator to be developed

Current: to be developed. 9

Tonnes of residential waste recycled/year/worker

Target: Indicator to be developed

Current: to be developed.10

Economic and environmental benefits to householders and the municipality as a result of significant reduction in household waste.

Reduce commercial waste in the municipality.

Tonnes of commercial waste generated/year/worker

Target: Indicator to be developed

Current: Indicator to be developed

Tonnes of commercial waste recycled/year/worker

Target: Indicator to be developed

Current: Indicator to be developed

Economic and environmental benefits to businesses and the municipality as a result of significant reduction in commercial waste.

Ecological footprint and target

Develop a municipal ecological footprint and target including embodied energy and water in the goods and services used within the municipality.

Ecological footprint indicator to be developed An integrated view of our activities and lifestyles, based on full life cycle thinking about consumer goods and services has resulted in significant reductions in material goods.

Recycling and waste collection more economic

Waste collection and processing system is assessed and a system is developed and implemented which is more economic and efficient.

Cost of waste management/year/ratepayer

Waste is collected and managed more economically and more efficiently to reduce waste generation, increasing recycling and reducing costs.

Embodied energy

The use of materials and products with high levels of embodied energy is reduced. Embodied energy is the total amount of energy required to transform raw products and materials to their final use (i.e. extract, harvest, process, manufacture, transport, construct and maintain) and must be reduced for life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission targets be achieved.

Indicator to be developed. Materials, products and systems used for building and public realm construction, refurbishment and maintenance reflect current best practice in energy conservation through low embodied energy use. Residents of the municipality are able to make informed choices in terms of embodied energy levels when purchasing materials and products.

See also

4. Adapted for climate change

Every person in the municipality will be aware of - and manage - risks associated with climate change. We will adapt to ensure long-term benefits for the community and capitalise on opportunities for adaptation.

The municipality is already experiencing the effects of human-induced climate change, including: reduced rainfall; higher temperatures and heat waves; increased evaporation; sea level rises and storm surges; intense rainfall events; increased storm frequency and intensity; increased wind speed.11 These changes in our local weather conditions and climate signal the start of a long-term shift, they are not merely a variation of the norm.

Developed cities around the world are preparing for climate change. Given the potential high risk impacts of these changes on our economy and sustainability, our municipality must prepare for climate change, developing and implementing strategies to reduce its vulnerability and make the most of its opportunities.

Melbourne has world leading research resources in this area and can become a world centre for research and innovative industries and businesses that meet the challenge of a changing climate. In July 2008 The City of Melbourne released its public consultation draft Climate Adaptation Strategy 12 for the municipality. Operational research is needed into the specific localised effects and solutions in Melbourne including key institutions such as Melbourne Water, hospital and retailers.

Adapting to climate change requires a better understanding of the city's dependence on resource-based or climate-sensitive industries, the capacity and resilience of its infrastructure, and the needs of its diverse and growing population. We will need to:

  • manage water shortages and flooding through actions such as stormwater harvesting and other strategies set out in The city as a catchment ;
  • use cooling from the city parks and rooftop gardens as part of the city ecosystem to delivering eco-system cooling services along with passive shading to reduce the impact of heat stress and the heat island effect13; and
  • ensure that buildings and infrastructure are designed to mitigate the impacts of projected sea-level rise, storm damage surge, and flooding.

We will successfully adapt to climate change through a good public awareness of the municipality's specific risks based on the best scientific and professional research and advice. We will also adapt through organisations in the municipality collaborating to develop effective, innovative and economically productive adaptation solutions. These solutions will be aligned with the municipal greenhouse gas mitigation strategy. This will enable residents, visitors and workers within the municipality to understand their shared and individual responsibilities.

Goals Indicators Outcomes

Climate change

Manage risk to the municipality from climate change


Percentage of organisations with climate change adaptation strategies.

Survey community understanding of municipal risks and responses.

A community that is highly aware of climate change risks, and understands and is implementing the necessary adaptation strategies for risks in 2010, 2030, and 2070.

Leader in climate adaption research

Melbourne is a world leading research resource and centre in urban climate change adaption and innovative businesses develop strategies, technologies and products to meet the challenge.

Indicator to be developed Melbourne is a leading example of urban adaptation strategies and technologies and exports these to cities around the world.

Innovative climate adaptation solutions

Innovative and productive climate adaptation solutions tailored specifically to the municipality and which make a measurable contributions to greenhouse gas mitigation.

Indicator to be developed. Melbourne has adapted to the risks of climate change and continues to prosper.

See also

5. Living and working in a dense urban centre

To become an eco-city the living, working, cultural and recreational activities of the municipality will be integrated into a dense and liveable urban ecosystem at the hub of a metropolitan network of similar urban nodes, creating environmental, economic, social and health benefits alike for the metropolitan area and the municipality.

Since the 1950s, Melbourne has developed as a sprawling low-density metropolis. Today, most people depend on motor vehicles to go about their daily activities, and goods and services are freighted large distances within the city. This pattern has also driven agriculture beyond the metropolitan area, so food has to be freighted into the city every day.

Our high levels of personal, business and freight travel are a significant source of greenhouse emissions and increased costs to household and businesses.

Most Melburnians would prefer to have their homes, workplaces, schools, shopping social and other activities conveniently close by. This is why since the 1980's many are now moving into urban centres such as the municipality of Melbourne where most daily trips for home, work, school and recreation can be done easily and in a short time, on foot or by bicycle.

To be an eco-city the municipality needs to have a high density of different types of activities, give priority for walking and cycling as the most logical and most sustainable transport options. New urban growth will need to focus around existing and proposed rail stations and tram routes, particularly along the main roads and boulevards in the municipality (known as transit-oriented development).

The development of similar urban nodes forming a network of mixed-use urban centres across the metropolitan area, connected by regular, high-speed sustainable transport and freight services will start to build a metropolitan urban ecosystem that will be more economic, more liveable and environmentally sustainable in the future.

Increasing residential population density in the municipality

Currently the municipality has a low residential density of 22 residents / hectare (or 13 dwellings per hectare). However, our population density increases to a high 212 people / hectare if daily visitors are added to the counts.

Each day, visitors to the municipality outnumber residents 10 to one. Business-as-usual trend population projections to 2020 for the municipality show residential population reaching 140,000 (currently 86,000) while daily visitor numbers (including workers) should reach 1,000,000 (currently 700,000). This projected daily visitor population presents a major transport challenge.

If more of these people both lived and worked within the municipality this would reduce the daily visitor transport task without increasing the number of people in the city daily. Pro-actively encouraging increasing residential density in the inner city will strengthen its sustainability.

The six-storey (medium rise) apartment block is the optimum building type for energy efficiency and can accommodate the household densities Inner Melbourne will require. This development standard could generate the density required for pedestrian comfort and a good public transport system. Implementation of this height limit will need to acknowledge and respond to heritage values.

Giving priority to walking and cycling

Inner Melbourne has an excellent road network that could be very suitable for walking and cycling. The current high volumes and speeds of motor vehicles in this network could be reduced in favour of walking and cycling, and the proportion of road space allocated to walkers and cyclists could be increased.

Changes are already happening in the central city, such as the separated bike lane along the north end of Swanston Street. Change of this nature could be accelerated and significantly expanded, eventually forming a network of safe and attractive routes throughout the inner metropolitan area.

Develop a metropolitan network of urban centres

The Victorian Government's Melbourne 2030 sets out a long-term vision for a network of activity centres and transit cities connected by tram and high-speed rail public transport. Activity centres will increasingly provide employment, accommodation and recreation, and the municipality will include the largest of these centres.

The municipality will be the heart of a network of similar but smaller urban centres forming a more sustainable and powerfully connected metropolitan region. The City of Melbourne will foster functional links with Footscray (identified as a transit city), the municipality's closest urban centre, and will work to create and strengthen sustainable transit links with all surrounding cities, towns and communities.

Between these urban nodes lower density suburbs would become more energy efficient and greener.

Developing local food production

Urban agriculture can reduce environmental impacts and increase the resilience of urban food supplies by:

  • reducing vulnerability to oil prices
  • reducing food miles and greenhouse emissions
  • making use of alternative agricultural inputs such as stormwater, wastewater and food waste
  • reducing land conflict between food production, biodiversity and biofuels.

City of Melbourne residents, restaurants and businesses will increasingly source more fresh foodstuffs grown and processed locally, and therefore reduce the financial and greenhouse gas costs of food freight. Food-yielding trees and plants may be incorporated into public parks and private body corporate gardens. Space will be used intensively, including rooftop and wall gardens.

Throughout the metropolitan region, food will be produced in and between urban centres and distributed locally and regionally. Up to one third of food consumed in the city will be sourced locally or regionally. Organic waste including food waste may be collected and processed locally as compost.

Goals Indicators Outcomes

A sustainable mixed use urban centre

The central city will have a greater proportion of residents to daily visitors. It will be the metropolitan region's principal mixed use high-density sustainable urban centre linked by good public transport to other similar urban nodes.

The proportion of residents to daily visitors

Target: 18 per cent

Current: 11 per cent

The municipality has become dense and walkable mixed use urban centre. New development has been in buildings at around six storeys. There is a dynamic mix of residential, employment, retail and cultural activities and opportunities, linked by fast public transport to other similar urban nodes in the metropolitan area.

Better population balance

Increase the number of people to both live and work in the municipality.

Proportion of people who live and work in the municipality

Target: 65 per cent

Current: 42 per cent

Many more people now live and work within the municipality and prefer to walk or cycle to work, school, shopping and for recreation.

More locally produced food

Increase production, distribution and consumption of locally and regionally grown food.

Increase proportion of fresh food consumed locally but grown within 50km of the municipality.

Target: 30 per cent

Current: data to be collected.

A thriving niche market for locally grown fresh produce supplied by rooftop gardens, under franchise agreements with building owners corporations. Melbourne has an international reputation for its many 'food mile' restaurants who serve delicious cuisine made from produce sourced within 50km of the central city. Open spaces enable local residents to cultivate food for their own consumption or for sharing on a not-for-profit basis.

See also

References

1 : Wikipedia - List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions per capita

2 : Commissioner for Environmental Sustainability (2007) State of the Environment - Energy

3 : Sustainable Development Commission, UK, Sustainable Consumption Roundtable (2006). I will if you will - Towards sustainable consumption

4 : City of Melbourne (2008) Environmental Sustainability - Introduction

5 : Transperth savings and emissions calculator

6 : Coal Fired Power Stations are Death Factories. Close them. James Hansen. The Guardian 15 February 2009

7 : Total Water Mark - City As A Catchment. September 2008. City of Melbourne

8 : Eco cities special: Ecopolis Now

9 : Sustainability Victoria (2006) Victorian Local Government Data Collection

10 : Sustainability Victoria (2006) Victorian Local Government Data Collection

11 : The Victorian Climate Change Program. Climate Change in Victoria:2008 Summary

12 : City of Melbourne (2008) Towards a City of Melbourne Climate Change Adaptation Strategy - A Risk Assessment and Action Plan. Discussion Paper Responding with Resilience

13 : Urban Climate Research, Urban Heat Island Research links, Monash University

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Topic revision: r4 - 21 Jul 2008 - 10:08:37 - FMInternalEditor